Labour market guides: careers with skills shortages
Employers find some types of jobs harder to fill than others. These are known as skills shortage areas. In theory, it may be easier to find work if there are fewer other applicants for the jobs you apply for, and employers could feel more pressure to offer a competitive salary. In practice, you will still need the right skills and a genuine interest in the job to get hired. What’s more, skills shortages can exist in areas that offer relatively low pay, such as driving or cleaning.
Many of the areas that have offered particularly good employment prospects over the past few years revolve around science, engineering, healthcare and, to some extent, IT, business and social work. Not all job areas with skills shortages require a university education or equivalent – for example, experienced chefs have been sought after.
However, skills shortages change over time. There’s no guarantee that an area that has a skills shortage when you are a teenager will still have one five years down the line.
From chefs to doctors, the roles in demand
The UK Visa Bureau’s shortage occupations list is a helpful starting point. Its actual purpose is to inform UK employers and potential immigrants what jobs can be filled by workers from outside the EU, but the information is useful to anyone interested in skills shortages.
Jobs on the list include:
- numerous professional engineering roles
- numerous healthcare roles, especially for experienced doctors
- social workers in children’s and family services
- various roles in visual effects and 2D/3D computer animation for film, television or video games
- top-level ballet dancers, contemporary dancers and orchestral musicians
- secondary school teachers specialising in maths, physics or chemistry
- various roles relating to physics and geology
- several senior-level roles in nuclear decommissioning and waste management
- several roles relating to electricity transmission and distribution
- actuarial roles in various industries
- experienced high integrity pipe welders
- several types of experienced chef.
Skilled tradespeople and machine operatives more sought after than professionals
Another source is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES)’s Employer Skills Survey, which is conducted every two years. This contains less information about specific jobs with shortages, but gives a broad-brush view of the situation in different industries and at different levels.
The most recent survey, conducted in 2015, found that jobs defined as skilled trades had the highest percentage of vacancies caused by skills shortages. In this category, the top three jobs with skills shortages were:
- metal working production and maintenance fitters
- vehicle technicians, mechanics and electricians.
The survey notes that skilled trades has been the area with the highest percentage of skills shortages for a number of years.
Machine operatives was the area with the second highest percentage of skills shortages. LGV drivers was one notable shortage area in this group.
Jobs defined as professional had the third highest skills shortage problem. This category covers jobs for which a good deal of relevant education and training is required, such as a relevant degree and/or professional qualifications. Examples include doctors, solicitors, architects, accountants, nurses, teachers, social workers and professional-level engineers and IT workers. The survey doesn’t specify which particular jobs were most in demand but does note that the greatest shortages of professionals were in the manufacturing, construction, transport and communications, business services and health and social work sectors.
Health, food and drink and other growth industries
According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), the industries with the biggest growth in number of employees in 2012 and 2013 were:
- human health activities
- food and beverage service activities
- activities of head offices and management consulting activities (head office activities tend to include functions such as HR, finance and marketing)
- computer programming, consultancy and related activities
Areas with falls in employment numbers included public administration, defence and publishing, among others.
This information comes from the ONS Annual Estimates of Employees from the Business Register and Employment Survey (BRES) 2013. The report looked at how many workers were employed by which broad types of industries and found that ‘between 2009 and 2013, the largest increase has been in the professional, scientific and technical industry group (12.2%), followed by business administration and support services (10.7%)’. It also found that employment in the information and communication sector had increased by 5.3% in 2012 and 2013, particularly in management consulting and computer programming and computer consultancy.